Towards effective regulation of sea based transboundary movement of nuclear wastes.

We live in a world that is continuously aware of the risk posed by global warming. Fuel sources that emit carbon dioxide and other green house gases are critically viewed. There is a growing demand to "go-green" in every industry. Carbon trading is a fast growing trade and every country especially in the developed world is being called upon to observe and adhere to the Kyoto Protocol and whatever instrument that will succeed it, be it the Copenhagen Accord or any other instrument. There is also the call to undertake roll back measures to cut back on emissions.

Ionic content of body fluids and sodium efflux in Oreochromis alcalicus grahami, a fish living at temperatures above 30°C and in conditions of extreme alkalinity

Values for blood plasma ions at 35°C are: Na, 210.4 ± 4.6; Cl, 144.6 ± 2.6 and K, 6.5 ± 0.4 mM; osmotic pressure, 400 ± 18 mOsm. 2. 2. Blood ionic composition resembles that of marine teleost species except that at 210 mM plasma Na+ is rather elevated while body ionic composition is unusual in that at 46 mM kg− K+ is rather low. 3. 3. Although Lake Magadi has a high bicarbonate content (87 mM) and high alkalinity (pH 10) blood values for these parameters are not unusually high when compared to other fishes. 4. 4. O.

Multivariative Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Nematode Distribution Along The Continental Slope Off The Kenyan Coast

Nematodes are very useful organisms in marine ecosystem. They facilitate re mineralization and uptake of detritus by other organisms thereby making complete the food chain of the marine ecosystem. A study on the environmental variables that affect presence - absence of the organisms is essential in ensuring secure habitats are provided for the nematodes. In this study, multivariate methods are used to test for significant differences in nematode abundances between different transects and water depths in the Northeast and Southeast monsoon seasons.

Planning for tourism in the lamu Archipelago

One major industry that could thrive in the Lamu archipelago is the tourist industry. Lamu's attraction for tourism includes socio-historical aspects, marine as well as wildlife resources. As long as Lamu remains the unique place it is now, there would seem to be no limit to the level of tourism it would be possible to achieve. Just what level and how long, if allowed unchecked, the influx of tourists would take to 'destroy' the things they come to see is unknown, but it must not be allowed to happen.

The atmosphere, aerosols, trace gases and biogeochemical change in southern Africa : a regional integration : START Regional Syntheses

Attention is focused on temperature and rainfall changes occurring over the subcontinent of southern Africa, on atmospheric circulation and transport of aerosols and trace gases in the vertical and horizontal, and on repeated recirculation of atmospheric constituents over the region. It is shown that most air, and whatever is contained therein, exits the subcontinental airspace in a major plume moving to the east over the Indian Ocean at 31<sup>o</sup>S towards Australia and New Zealand. On occasions, the plume may be discernible over Australasia.

Tectonic evolution of Mui basin and the depositional sequence of the basin sediments

This study was conducted over the Mui Basin which is located in the south eastern parts of Kenya. It focuses on the tectonic evolution and depositional history of the basin. One of the motivating factors for the choice of this basin is the recently discovery of coal deposits reserves of well into millions of metric tons within the basin. In order to maximize on the costs of exploration, exploitation and development of such resources ones’ understanding of the same is crucial.

Geomorphology and sedimentology of the implications to coastal zone management Mombasa - Diani area

The overall objective of this thesis was to identify coastal zone management problems within Mombasa— Diani area. The study of sedimentological processes and geomorphic features have been used to solve these problems. Other objectives included evaluating the effectiveness of the existing control measures and identifying response strategies for the affected areas. The methods used were divided into field and laboratory methods. Sediments were investigated using grain size distribution analysis, carbonate content determination and microscopic study.

each erosion: case studies on the East African coast

Marine erosion of late Holocene beach deposits is a common problem 011 the equatorial coasts of the western Indian Ocean, damaging or threatening tourism-related investment and communication infrastructure. The problem is acute in Tanzania, both on the mainland in the vicinity of Dar-es-Salaam and on the islands of Zanzibar and Pernba. In Kenya erosion affects resort developments both north and south of Mombasa, while in the Seychelles it affects particularly the islands of Praslin and La Digue.

Sustainable management of riparian areas in Kenya:a critique of the inadequacy of the legislative framework governing the protection of sustainable management of riparian zones in Kenya

Riparian area is a critical component that holds several benefits to the environment as it essential for high water streams, rivers, lakes and along shorelines. However, riparian area has remained relatively unprotected from poor agricultural practices, residential and commercial construction, landscaping and logging.

Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

The ten ASARECA member countries (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda) have adopted, or are planning to adopt, a range of climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture (see Table 1 for a summary). Of the 26 strategies mentioned, only two are common to all 10 countries, while five more are common to five or more. The strategies common to all member countries include the development and promotion of drought-tolerant and early-maturing crop species and exploitation of new and renewable energy sources.

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